blockchain, was ist blockchain

Was ist die Blockchain?

Die Blockchain Technologie ist wohl eine der wegweiseseten Erfindungen des 21.ten Jahrhunderts.

Doch was ist die Blockchain eigentlich?

Im Grunde genommen ist eine Blockchain lediglich ein verteiltes Orderbuch, das Transaktionen zwischen Parteien transparent und ohne Manipulationsmöglicheiten abbildet. Man kann sie sich also tatsächlich als eine Art Kette vorstellen, deren Glieder die geminten Transaktionsblocks sind.

Was die Blockchain so besonders und sicher macht, sind ihre grundlegenden Eigenschaften, die für jede einzelne Transaktion gelten:

  • Alle Parteien sind sich einig, dass die Transaktion stattgefunden hat.
  • Alle Parteien verifizieren die Identität der an der Transaktion beteiligten Personen.
  • Jede Partei bestätigt den Zeitpunkt der Transaktion.
  • Die Details der Transaktion sind leicht prüfbar und können im Nachgang nicht mehr verändert werden.

Die Kombination dieser Eigenschaften führt zu einem System, das alle Transaktionen sicher und dauerhaft mit Zeitstempeln erfasst und sich leicht überprüfen lässt.

Darüber hinaus ist das System Blockchain aufgrund seiner Umsetzung als dezentrales Netzwerk extrem ausfallsicher und nicht manipulierbar.. All diese Eigenschaften zusammengenommen machen die Blockchain-Technologie für die unterschiedlichsten Anwendungen  enorm attraktiv und erklären das steigende Interesse an dieser Technologie.

Blockchain-Grundlagen

Die Anwendbarkeit der Blockchain Technologie lässt sich am besten am Bitcoin erklären.

Die Bitcoin-Anwendung umfasst zwei Arten von Benutzern, die wir als User und Miner bezeichnen. Teilnehmer sind Einzelpersonen, die Bitcoin als Währung verwenden wollen, indem sie Bitcoin senden und empfangen als Gegenleistung für Waren und Dienstleistungen.

Diese Benutzer verwenden die Bitcoin-Software, um ein „Wallet“ zu erstellen, von dem aus sie Bitcoins an andere Teilnehmer senden und empfangen können. Die Transaktionen – wortwörtlich nur eine an das Bitcoin-Netzwerk gesendete Nachricht, dass dieser Benutzer eine bestimmte Anzahl von Bitcoins an diesen Benutzer gegeben hat – zeigen den Benutzern an, dass das Wallet aktualisiert werden sollte.

Die Rolle des Miners besteht darin, diese Transaktionen rechtzeitig durch einen Prozess zu zementieren, der als Mining bezeichnet wird. Mining beinhaltet das Lösen eines harten mathematischen Rätsels, um Blöcke zu erstellen, gruppierte Sätze von Transaktionen, die verifiziert wurden, um gültig zu sein.
Diese Blöcke werden von allen Minern überprüft und verifiziert. Erst danach werden sie in die Blockchain geschrieben und dort für immer verankert.

 

Was macht die Blockchain so sicher?

In diesem Umfeld ist es nicht möglich, vorzutäuschen, dass eine Transaktion stattgefunden hat, wenn sie nicht stattgefunden hat. Alle Beteiligten können sich die Transaktionshistorie ansehen und sehen, dass eine solche Transaktion nie stattgefunden hat.

Wenn man versucht, eine betrügerische Transaktion hinzuzufügen, wird die Antwort auf das Rätsel von der richtigen Antwort abweichen, da das nächste Rätselstück nur mit der tatsächlich verifizierten Transaktion verknüpft werden kann. Dass heisst: Nur die wahre Transaktion wird mit dem nächsten Rätselstück verknüpft. Wenn jemand also versucht, einen neuen Block in die Kette einzufügen, vergleichen andere Miner den gefälschten Block mit ihrer eigenen Kopie der Blockchain und erkennen schnell, dass der neue Block gefälscht ist. Denn jeder Miner hat eine vollständige Kopie der Blockchain auf seinem System gespeichert um die Blöcke verifizieren zu können.

Exkurs: Wie funktioniert Mining?

Mögliche Anwendungsgebiete der Blockchain Technologie:

  • Man kann Arztergebnisse sicher und unveränderbar speichern.
  • Man kann den Börsenhandel transparent für Teilnehmer gestalten.
  • Besitzurkunden und Dokumente sicher verankern.
  • Identitäten fest verankern und Betrug verbeugen.
  • Zeiterfassungssysteme sicher und einfach gestalten.
  • Fahrtenbücher transparent für unternehmen und Behörden speichern.
  • Qualitätssicherungen transparen für Konsumenten speichern.
  • uvm.

Ein guten veranschaulichten Überblick über die Anwendung der Blockchaintechnologie liefert dieses kurze Video:

 

+ Hinweis: Denken Sie daran, dass CFDs ein Hebelprodukt sind und zum Verlust des gesamten Kapitals führen können. Bitte stellen Sie sicher, dass sie die damit verbundenen Risiken vollständig verstanden haben.

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